SUBJECT:- ANATOMY (PAPER-1)
- Definition of anatomy and its divisions, Terms of location, positions and planes.
- Cell and its organelles, Tissues & its classification, Glands.
- Musculoskeletal system:
- Structure of Bone & its types.
- Joints- Classification of joints with examples; details of synovial joint.
- Bones & joints of upper limb, lower limb and their movements.
- Axial skeleton & appendicular skeleton.
- Skull, spine & its movements, intervertebral disc.
- Muscles & its types.
- Muscles of the upper limb, lower limb, trunk and neck.
- Cardiovascular System:
- Arteries & veins, Capillaries & arterioles.
- Heart- size, location, chambers, blood supply of heart, pericardium.
- Systemic & pulmonary circulation.
- Major blood vessels of Heart- Aorta, pulmonary artery, common carotid artery, subclavian artery, axillary artery, brachial artery, common iliac artery, femoral artery.
- Inferior vena cava, portal circulation, great saphenous vein.
- Lymphatic System:
- Lymph & Lymph vessels.
- Structure of lymph node, names of regional lymphatics, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes.
- Gastro-intestinal System:
- Parts of GIT, structure of tongue, pharynx, salivary glands.
- Location & Gross structure of Oesophagus, stomach, intestine (small and large), liver, gall bladder, pancreas, spleen.
- Respiratory system:
- Parts of Respiratory system; Structure of nose, nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, lungs, pleura, bronchopulmonary segments.
- Urinary System:
- Parts of Urinary system, location and gross structure of kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra.
- Reproductive system:
- Parts of male reproductive system, gross structure of testis, vas deferens, epididymis, prostate.
- Parts of female reproductive system, gross structure of uterus, ovary, fallopian tube, mammary gland.
- Endocrine glands:
- Name of all endocrine glands, gross structure & functions of pituitary gland, adrenal gland, thyroid gland and parathyroid gland.
- Nervous system:
- Neuron, classification of NS.
- Meninges, ventricles, CSF.
- Gross features of cerebrum, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, name of basal nuclei.
- Blood supply of brain, cranial nerves.
- Spinal cord and spinal nerves.
- Autonomic nervous system.
- Visual & auditory pathways
- Sensory Organs:
- Skin & its appendages.
- Structure of eye & lacrimal apparatus, name of extraocular muscles.
- Structure of ear: external, middle & inner ear.
Demonstration of all bones of the human body.
Demonstration of all organs of the human body.
- Epithelium: Simple (squamous, cuboidal, columnar, ciliated), Stratified, Transitional
- Bone, muscles (skeletal, smooth, cardiac)
- Cartilage (hyaline, elastic, fibro cartilage).
- Connective Tissue (loose and dense).
- Arteries (large & medium sized), Veins.
- Ross and Wilson, Anatomy and Physiology, Chruchill Livingstone.
- Companion Pocketbook for quick review
- B.D. Chaurasia’s Human Anatomy -Vol. (1,2,3)
- Anatomy for B.Sc. Nursing – Dr Renu Chauhan
- Red Blood Cells- Functions, count, Physiological variations. Erythropoisis-stages
- Hemoglobin-Functions, Physiological variations.
- White Blood cells-Functions, count, morphology.
- Platelets-count, morphology, functions. Hemostasis-Definition, Mechanism, clotting factors.
- Blood groups-ABO system, Rh system, Blood transfusion- Indication, transfusion reactions.
- Anaemias-classification, morphological and Etiological, effects of anaemia on body.
2. Cardiovascular System
- Heart-Physiological Anatomy, Nerve supply, Properties of cardiac muscle.
- Cardiac Cycle-Events –systole, diastole
- Cardiac Output-Definition and factors affecting it.
- Heart sounds-normal heart sounds, its causes, areas of auscultations.
- Blood Pressure-Definition, normal value, Physiological variations, its measurement.
- ECG- normal waves.
- Shock-Definition, Types.
3. Gastrointestinal System
- Physiological Anatomy, functions of GIT.
- Salivary Gland-functions of saliva.
- Stomach- structure and functions, Gastric secretions-composition, functions, Mechanism
- Pancreas- structure, functions, composition of Pancreatic juice.
- Liver-Functions of liver.
- Bile-Composition, functions.
- Jaundice-Types and its causes.
- Gall Bladder- Functions
- Intestine- Movements of small and large intestine.
- Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates, Protiens, Fats.
- Hormones of GIT- Functions of Gastrin, Secretin, CCK-Pz.
4. Respiratory System
- Physiological Anatomy, Functions of the respiratory system.
- Types of respiration, respiratory membrane.
- Lung volumes and capacities, vital capacity and factors affecting it.
- Transport of Oxygen-Forms of transportation, Oxy-hemoglobin dissociation curve and factors affecting it.
- Transport of Carbon-Dioxide- Forms of transportation.
- Hypoxia-Definition, types, effects of hypoxia.
- Cyanosis-Definition and types.
- Artificial Respiration- CPR
5. Endocrine System
- Classification of Endocrine glands and their hormones.
- Thyroid Gland-Physiological Anatomy, hormones secreted, functions, disorders- Hypo and hyper secretion of hormone.
- Adrenal Gland-Adrenal Cortex-Physiological Anatomy, its hormones and functions.
- Adrenal Medulla-Hormones, functions.
- Pituitary Gland- Anterior and posterior pituitary hormones and their functions, disorders.
- Pancreas- Hormones and their functions, Diabetes Mellitus-types, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms.
- Parathyroid Gland- Hormones and their functions.
6. Central Nervous System
- Structure of neuron, functions of nervous system.
- Classification and properties of nerve fibres
- Synapse- structure and types
- Receptors-Definition, classification, properties, Reflex Arc
- Ascending and Descending tracts- names and functions
- Functions of Hypothalamus
- Functions of Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia
- Functions of Cerebral Cortex
- Autonomic Nervous System- Actions of sympathetic and parasympathetic system and their comparison.
- Special Senses-Eye-structure, functions of different parts,Visual acuity, Refrective errors
Ear-structure, functions, General mechanism of hearing
7. Excretory System
- Kidneys-structure of nephron, functions of kidney
- Glomerular filtration Rate(GFR) and factors affecting it
- Counter Current Mechanism
- Bladder-its innervation, micturition reflex
8. Reproductive System
- Male Reproductive System-Stages of spermatogenesis, function of Testosterone
- Female Reproductive System-Ovulation, menstrual cycle, functions of Estrogen and progesterone
9. Nerve Muscle Physiology
- Classification of Muscle, structure of skeletal muscle
- Neuromuscular Junction
- Excitation Contraction Coupling
- Estimation of Hemoglobin Concentration
- Determination of Bleeding Time and Clotting Time
- Determination of Blood Groups
- Recording of normal Blood Pressure
- Clinical Examination of Arterial Pulse
Determination of Vital Capacity
- Cell: Morphology, structure & functions of cell, cell membrane, Nucleus, chromatin,
Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Ribosomes.
- Carbohydrates: Definition, chemical structure, functions, sources, classifications,
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides, mucopoloysaccharide and its importance,glycoproteins
- Lipids: Definition, function, sources, classification, simple lipid, compound lipid, derived
lipid, unsaturated and saturated fatty acid. Essential fatty acids and their importance, Blood
lipids and their implications, cholesterol with its importance.
- Proteins :Definition, sources, amino acids, structure of protein, their classification, simple
protein, conjugated protein, derived proteins and their properties.
- Enzymes: Definitions, mechanism of action, factors affecting enzyme action, enzyme of
1) Vitamins: Types, functions and role.
2) Principal minerals and their functions(Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl)
3) Balanced diet, Diet for Chronically and terminally ill patients, post operative patients
- Bioenergetics: Energy rich compounds, Respiratory chain and Biological oxidation.
- Carbohydrate Metabolism: Glycolysis, TCA cycle, Glycogen metabolism,
Gluconeogenesis, Maintenance of Blood Glucose. Diabetes Mellitus and its complications.
- Lipid Metabolism: Beta oxidation, Ketone bodies, Cholesterol and atherosclerosis, obesity.
- Protein Metabolism: Transamination, Deamination, Fate of ammonia, urea synthesis and its inborn errors.
- Water and Electrolyte, Fluid compartment, daily intake and output sodium and potassium balance
- Nerve tissue: Neuro transmitters and nerve activity.
- Hormones: Actions of Hormone Insulin, Glucagon, Thyroid and Parathyroid hormones,
- Biophysics: Concepts of pH and buffers, osmotic pressure and its physiological applications. Acid Base Balance , role of lungs and kidneys,– Regulation of blood pH, acidosis, Alkalosis
- Physical Chemistry: Osmosis, Dialysis, Donann membrane equilibirium
- Organ function Tests: Renal and Liver Function Tests
I. Introduction of Laboratory apparatus
b) Burettes, Beakers
e) Bottles, Reagent bottles
f) Measuring cylinders
g) Tubes – Test Tubes
h) Cuvettes, significance of cuvettes in colorimeter, cuvetter for visible, UV range, cuvette
holders racks – Bottle, Test Tube, Pippette.
i) Maintenance of lab glass ware and apparatus
j) Care and cleaning of Glass and plastic ware in Laboratory
II. Instruments (Theory & demonstration)
• Water bath
• Oven & incubators
• Water distillation plant, water deionizers, deep freezers
• Laboratory balances
- Urine Analysis – normal constituents and detection of abnormal constituents
- Quantitative analysis (keeping in view their clinical correlations)
b. Analysis of blood sugar
c. RFTs (Estimation of blood urea, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, and their
- Clinical interpretation of
a. Liver Function Tests ( serum bilirubin, SGOT, SGPT, ALP)
b. Electrolytes(sodium, potassium, Chloride)
c. Serum Calcium, magnesium
d. Arterial Blood Gas Analysis
4) Investigative work out for
a. Myocardial Infarction
b. Unconscious patient
c. Diabetic ketoacidosis
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Introduction to computer – I/O devices – memories – RAM and ROM – Different kinds of
ROM – kilobytes. MB, GB their conversions – large computer – Medium, Micro, Mini
computers – Different computer languages – Number system – Binary and decimal
conversions – Different operating system – MS DOS – Basic commands – MD, CD,
DIR,TYPE and COPY CON commands – Networking – LAN, WAN,MAN(only basic
Typing text in MS word – Manipulating text – Formatting the text – using different font
sizes, bold, italics – Bullets and numbering – Pictures, file insertion – Aligning the text and
justify – choosing paper size – adjusting margins – Header and footer, inserting page No’s in
a document – Printing a file with options – Using spell check and grammar – Find and
replace – Mail merge – inserting tables in a document.
Creating table in MS-Excel – Cell editing – Using formulas and functions – Manipulating
data with excel – Using sort function to sort numbers and alphabets – Drawing graphs and
charts using data in excel – Auto formatting – Inserting data from other worksheets.
Preparing new slides using MS-POWERPOINT – Inserting slides – slide transition and
animation – Using templates – Different text and font sizes – slides with sounds – Inserting
clip arts, pictures, tables and graphs – Presentation using wizards.
Introduction to Internet – Using search engine – Google search – Exploring the next using
Internet Explorer and Navigator – Uploading and Download of files and images – E- mail
ID creation – Sending messages – Attaching files in E- mail – Introduction to “C” language
– Different variables, declaration, usage – writing small programs using functions and sub –
- Typing a text and aligning the text with different formats using MS-Word
- Inserting a table with proper alignment and using MS-Word
- Create mail merge document using MS-word to prepare greetings for 10 friends
- Preparing a slide show with transition, animation and sound effect using MSPowerpoint
- Customizing the slide show and inserting pictures and tables in the slides using MSpowerpoint
- Creating a worksheet using MS-Excel with data and sue of functions Using MSExcel
prepare a worksheet with text, date time and data Preparing a chart and pie
diagrams using MS-Excel
- Using Internet for searching, uploading files, downloading files creating e-mail ID
- Using C language writing programs using functions